World’s most prominent geoscientist, Markku Kulmala, Professor of physics at the University of Helsinki, Finland says we also need to share our data.
Environmental challenges, climate change, water and food security and urban air pollution, are all interlinked. To tackle this, professor Markku Kulmala calls for continuous, comprehensive monitoring of interactions between the planet’s surface and atmosphere in his article “Build a global Earth observatory” published in Nature.
In his article, he refers to his long experience of collecting environmental data. He has built a station, and not just one, but probably the most impressive station, called SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relationships, http://www.atm.helsinki.fi/SMEAR/), in the boreal forests of Finland showing how a rounded set of environmental measurements can be obtained.
Now building on a large scale, the answer is a global Earth observatory, consisting of 1,000 or more well-equipped ground stations around the world that track environments and key ecosystems fully and continuously.
Data from these stations would be linked to data from satellite-based remote sensing, laboratory experiments and computer models accordingly.
Kulmala said: “Incomplete coverage from ground stations is the main limit to observations of Earth’s conditions. Satellites can continuously, online 24/7, monitor some compounds, such as CO2, ozone and aerosols, almost planet-wide. But they cannot resolve processes or fluxes, or trace the hundreds more compounds of interest. Satellite data must be ‘ground-truthed’.”
This global observatory of 1,000 super stations needs to be established soon, within 10-15 years.
“The costs would be around €10m to €20m per station, which can be compared to the building costs of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, or that of US President Donald Trump’s proposed Mexican wall.”
Nevertheless, a shift in how environmental data are collected and disseminated is needed, there is no question about that.
“There is a scientific interest, as well, in this data,” professor Markku Kulmala says, “the researchers could find new mechanisms and feedback loops in this coherent data set.”.
Markku Kulmala previously appeared in Pan European Networks: Science & Technology issue 18.