A team of Penn State researchers received a $450,000 (~€408,887) grant for studying the deformation properties and poromechanical behaviour of rock samples containing anhydrite.
Geologic layers and rock formations in the Earth’s crust have large fractures called faults, which contain interconnected channels. Water flows through and along these channels. However, anhydrite, a mineral created by the evaporation of seawater, and other similar minerals, can become smeared along the shear zones of the fault and clog fluid flow, acting as a pressure seal. Such fault seals can also hinder the extraction of natural resources such as petroleum.
Despite the importance of extracting natural resources in these locations, there is still a poor understanding of the faults’ frictional properties and permeability.
“Faults tend to be barriers to flow,” said Chris Marone, professor of geosciences at Penn State and affiliate at the EMS Energy Institute, who is the principal investigator on the project. “The idea for this project is to look carefully at how that fault seal process works. This topic is of great importance for earthquake prediction and for the energy industry, who would like to image fault zone properties using seismic waves.”
Marone’s investigation will explore fault zone structure and compare layered faults with mixtures of the same bulk composition using synthetic samples and reservoir rocks obtained in the field and from the U.S. Geological Survey Core Repositories. To do this, they will use a new testing device that allows for the application of true triaxial stresses, corresponding to the vertical stress and both horizontal stresses for a rock sample at depth, with fluid flow and acoustic measurements during deformation. Experiments will include measurements of formation permeability, elastic wave properties, deformation data and frictional strength for a range of conditions related to fault seal and seal breach.
“We’ll deform the samples slowly, little by little,” Marone said. “Then we will watch how permeability evolves and measure the evolution of elastic properties using acoustic waves travelling through the sample.”
The team hopes the work will lead to models that can better predict the evolution of permeability and seal in areas of intermixed evaporite- dolomite-clay, locations where anhydrite is often found. They also hope the work will improve their understanding of petroleum seal and seal development in marine-sediment basins.
“The project has, at the outset, some fairly simple goals that will push the envelope of what we know about fault zone permeability and shear strength,” Marone said. “Ultimately, we hope to improve our understanding about the way elastic properties and permeability co-evolve with deformation.”